231 W. Michigan St. | National or State Registers Record | Wisconsin Historical Society

National or State Registers Record

231 W. Michigan St.

National Register or State Register


Historic Name: Public Service Building

Reference Number: 98000576


Location (Address): 231 W. Michigan St.

County: Milwaukee

City/Village: Milwaukee



Public Service Building
231 W. Michigan Street, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County
Architect: Herman J. Esser
Date of Construction: 1902-06

In the mid-1880s railroad financiers Henry Villard and Henry Payne purchased and developed the Milwaukee Railway Company and the Edison Electric Illuminating Company with hopes to create a power and traction monopoly. The consolidation of these companies gave Milwaukee the first unified electric power utility in the nation, known as the Milwaukee Electric Railway and Light Company. John Beggs replaced Payne in 1897 and built the 'interurban' streetcar system. In 1905 their new Public Service Building became the center of this transportation network. It was intended to be a multiple use facility, serving as offices and as the downtown street car terminal.

Milwaukee architect Herman J. Esser designed the building using Beaux Arts Neoclassicalism. The rectangular building covers an entire city block. It is four stories high and each floor has its own level and type of ornamentation on the exterior. An operating clock is set in the center of the lintel above the main entrance doors. The arch surround above features two carved medallions, one depicting horse powered traction when the company was founded and the other an electrified street railway of 1905 when the terminal opened. Three large areas on the ground floor were trolley entrances into the terminal.

The interior was designed to make a grand statement about the company that it housed. The most noteworthy spaces are the marble clad two story lobby, the remodeled auditorium in Modern style and the wood paneled Chairman's Suite. Oval stained-glass skylights manufactured by Tiffany Company in New York are placed in the lobby and Chairman's Suite. A copper relief of a beehive with bees buzzing around it is also located in the lobby. It symbolizes the level of activity in the building and the company.

In 1938 the company was restructured and became the Wisconsin Electric Power Company, which later became WeEnergies. The building continues to serve as their headquarters. It is open during regular business hours.


Period of Significance: 1902-1946

Area of Significance: Architecture

Area of Significance: Transportation

Applicable Criteria: Architecture/Engineering

Applicable Criteria: Event

Historic Use: Commerce/Trade: Business

Historic Use: Transportation: Rail-Related

Architectural Style: Beaux Arts

Architectural Style: Classical Revival

Resource Type: Building

Architect: Esser, Herman J.


Historic Status: Listed in the National Register

Historic Status: Listed in the State Register

National Historic Landmark Listing Date:

National Register Listing Date: 1998-05-20

State Register Listing Date: 1997-10-17


Number of Contributing Buildings: 1

Number of Contributing Sites: 0

Number of Contributing Structures: 0

Number of Contributing Objects: 0

Number of Non-Contributing Buildings: 0

Number of Non-Contributing Sites: 0

Number of Non-Contributing Structures: 0

Number of Non-Contributing Objects: 0


National Register and State Register of Historic Places, Division of Historic Preservation-Public History, Wisconsin Historical Society, Madison, Wisconsin

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