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Lakes Phase of the Late Woodland

(1,500 to 600 years ago)

Other groups (or 'phases') of Late Woodland communities lived in areas north of the effigy-builders. Lakes phase peoples built dome-shaped mounds, linear mounds, and mounds that mixed dome and linear shapes. The latter are sometimes called 'catfish' effigies, though it is not clear whether or not they represent that animal. As in the south, a mix of burial types was used. Bundle and flexed burials were usually placed directly on sod and then covered with mounds. Some graves were excavated into the fill of older mounds.

Crematories and ossuaries were also utilized, as were formal non-mounded cemeteries. Graves at the Robinson site cemetery in Oneida County were enclosed by a wooden fence. Flexed and bundled burials there were wrapped in birch bark, and were accompanied by a few, every-day objects.

Other phases existed in far northeastern Wisconsin. Very little is known about their burial practices. Some people seem to have built dome-shaped, oval or tear-drop shaped mounds. Other people placed burials in crevices and small caves. At the Gibson Shelter site northeast of Green Bay, bone bundles were discovered in a narrow fissure cave. Bone artifacts and potsherds were found with them.
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