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Dictionary of Wisconsin History

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Search Results for: Keyword: 'missionary'

Term: Indian schools in Wisconsin

Definition:

Early Religious Schools: From 1661 to 1728, Jesuit missionaries taught Indian children, but for nearly a century after their departure there is no record of Indian education by whites. After the War of 1812, the U.S. government encouraged such work, however, and by 1836 there were 10 Indian schools teaching 1,300 pupils in northern Wisconsin and Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Protestant missionaries taught schools for Menominee, Ojibwe and Oneida children in Green Bay, 1829-1841, as well as among the Mohicans at Stockbridge, 1830-1848. In the same region, Catholic missionaries opened schools among the Menominee as that nation moved from Green Bay to Lake Poygan and Keshena, 1830-1852. On Lake Superior, Protestant missionaries ran schools for Ojibwe children at LaPointe, Odanah, at Yellow Lake in Burnett Co., and at Lac Court Oreilles during the years 1831-1854; Catholic missionaries also educated Indian children at LaPointe, 1835-1853. Many records of these early missionary schools were published in vol XIV of Wisconsin Historical Collections. For more information, see Wisconsin Magazine Of History, vol. 58 no. 2 (1974-1975): 140-148 and vol. 64 no. 4 (1981): 242-260.  

Schools That Existed during the Assimilation Era: Between 1887 and 1934, the federal government attempted to mainstream Native Americans through the policies of assimilation and allotment. At the height of this era, the following schools taught Indian children in Wisconsin:

 
U.S. Government Boarding Schools in 1899:

- Menominee Boarding School at Keshena, with 170 students and 5 staff;

- Oneida Boarding School at Oneida, with 131 students and 5 staff, superintendents Charles F. Pierce 1893-1899 and Joseph C. Hart 1900-1906

- Lac du Flambeau Boarding School at Lac du Flambeau, with 150 students and 5 staff, superintendents, Reuben Perry 1896-1902, HenryJ. Phillips 1903-1905, and John Flinn 1906.

U.S. Government Day Schools in 1899:

- Stockbridge Day School, 8 miles west of Keshena, with 34 students and 1 teacher;

- three day schools at Oneida, with 69 students in all and 1 teacher at each;

- day schools with a total enrollment of 297 and 7 total staff were operated at Paquahawong (20 miles from Hayward), at the Red Cliff Reservation at Odanah, and at Lac Court d'Oreilles Reservation at Hayward (superintendent William A. Light 1903-1906).

Boarding Schools Run by Others for the U.S. Government in 1899:

- Tomah Industrial School at Tomah, with 150 students and 5 staff (est. 1891, opened 1893), superintendents, S.C. Sanborn 1892-1895, H.D.Arkwright 1896, and L.M. Compton 1897-1906;

- Wittenberg School at Wittenberg, with 140 students and 4 staff (est. 1886 by the Norwegian Evangelical Church of America, government oversight est. 1895), superintendents Axel Jacobsen 1894-1904 and S.A.M. Young 1905-1906.

Winnebago Indian School (Black River Falls and Neillsville): See separate entry for this private school founded in 1878 by missionaries.

View more information and original documents, including eyewitness accounts and pictures of some of these schools, at Turning Points in Wisconsin History.   

View a related article at Wisconsin Magazine of History Archives.

[Source: Smith, Alice E. From Exploration to Statehood (Madison, 1973),Statistics of Indian tribes... (Washington, 1899); Godfrey, Anthony. A Forestry History of Ten Wisconsin Indian Reservations... (Salt Lake City, 1996).]

87 records found

Adams, William 1813 - 1897
Allouez, Claude Jean 1622 - 1689
Baptists in Wisconsin
Baraga, Frederic 1797 - 1868
Bonduel [origin of place name]
Breck, James Lloyd 1818 - 1876
Briggs, Jason W. 1821 - 1899
Broek, Theodore [Theodorus] van den, 1783-1851
Buck, Philo Melvin Jr. 1877 - 1950
Burleson, Solomon Stevens 1833 - 1897
Cadle, Richard Fish 1796 - 1857
Carheil, Fr, Étienne de, 1633-1726
Carter, Homer Wright 1847 - 1933
Catholics in Wisconsin
Chapin, Aaron Lucius 1817 - 1892
Charlevoix, Fr., Pierre François Xavier de, 1682-1
Chattanooga, Battle of
Civil War: 15th Infantry
Civil War: 21st Infantry
Clark, John 1797 - 1854
Clary, Dexter 1798 - 1874
Colman, Henry Root 1800 - 1895
Dablon (D'Ablon), Fr. Claude, 1619-1697.
Davidson, John Nelson 1848 - 1945
De Pere [brief history]
Derenthal, Oderic Ignaz 1856 - 1934
Dicke, Peter Henry 1822 - 1911
Disciples of Christ in Wisconsin
Eaton, Edward Dwight 1851 - 1942
Eaton, Samuel Witt 1820 - 1905
Ellis, Albert Gallatin 1800 - 1885
Episcopals in Wisconsin
Father Caspar Rehrl (Historic Marker Erected 1991)
Father Samuel Mazzuchelli (Historic Marker Erected
Fraser, Thomas 1820 - 1893
Garth, Schuyler Edward 1898 - 1947
Gordon, Philip 1886 - 1948
Hall, Sherman 1800 - 1879
Hauser, Jacob 1845 - 1931
Indian schools in Wisconsin
Iverson, Andreas Michael 1823 - 1907
Jogues, Fr. Isaac, 1607-1646
Kelly, Patrick 1792 - 1858
Kemper, Jackson 1789 - 1870
Kewaunee [brief history]
Lalemant, Fr. Jérôme (Hierosme), 1593-1673
Le Jeune, Fr. Paul, 1591-1664
Le Mercier, Fr., 1604-1690
Lochner, John Frederick Carl 1822 - 1902
Lummpkin, Hope Henry 1882 - 1932
Lutherans in Wisconsin
Madeline Island (Historic Marker Erected 1961)
Marcellon [origin of place name]
Marquette (Historic Marker Erected 1957)
Marquette, Jacques 1637 - 1675
Marsh, Cutting 1800 - 1873
Mazzuchelli, Samuel Charles 1806 - 1864
McArthur, Gen. Arthur (1845-1912)
Menard, Fr. Rene, 1605-1661
Metoxen, John 1770 - 1858
Miller, Marjorie "Midge" 1922
Miller, Wesson Gage 1822 - 1893
missionary
Missionary Ridge, Battle of
Moravians in Wisconsin
Mueller, John Gottlieb 1813 - 1893
Northwest Portal of Wisconsin (Historic Marker Ere
Ordway, Moses 1788 - 1870
Pere Marque'ite and Sieur Jolliet (Historic Marker
Ragueneau, Fr. Paul, 1608-1680
Rankin, Walter Laurie 1841 - 1910
Schinner, Augustine Francis 1863 - 1937
St. Cosme, Fr. Jean François Buisson de, dates unv
Stevens Point [origin of place name]
Stucki, Jacob 1857 - 1930
Tank, Nils Otto 1800 - 1864
Tanktown [origin of place name]
The Bad River (Historic Marker Erected 1957)
timeline of Wisconsin history, 1622-1699
timeline of Wisconsin history, 1784-1835
Verwyst, Chrysostom Adrian 1841 - 1925
Vimont, Fr. Barthélemy, 1594-1667
Walworth, John 1804 - 1895
Wheeler, Leonard Hemenway 1811 - 1872
Williams, Eleazer 1788 - 1858
Winnebago Indian School, Neillsville, Wis.
Wisconsin River Headwaters (Historic Marker Erecte

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