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Dictionary of Wisconsin History

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Search Results for: Keyword: 'black hawk'

Term: Black Hawk 1767 - 1838

Definition:

Black Hawk, ca. 1833 (WHi-3772)

war chief (Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak, "Black Sparrow Hawk"), b. Saukenuk, near Rock Island, III. His antagonism toward the Americans grew out of old loyalties and mutual misunderstandings which were largely a result of the Sauk-Fox Confederacy land cession in the Treaty of 1804, reaffirmed in 1816. During the War of 1812 Black Hawk participated on the British side as a member of the Indian Confederacy led by the Shawnee chief, Tecumseh. During the 1820's leadership of the Sauk tribe, based on prestige and influence, was contested between the peaceful and pro-American Chief Keokuk and the aging Black Hawk. In 1830 when the tribe was ordered to abandon its lands on the Rock River, Keokuk complied, but for a time Black Hawk refused and his antagonism increased when encroaching settlers destroyed Indian crops and burial grounds. Unequipped to fight for his lands, Black Hawk was soon forced to join the rest of the Sauk in Iowa, where the old chief's dislike of Keokuk and sense of injustice was played upon by the followers of a Winnebago spiritual leader known as White Cloud, or The Prophet. On Apr. 6, 1832, Black Hawk, with his entire band including women and children, re-crossed the Mississippi. Apparently one of his intentions was to plant and harvest a corn crop, but he was influenced by The Prophet, who assured him that a great Indian Confederacy would form behind him as it had done under the leadership of Tecumseh. Proceeding up the Rock River, Black Hawk defied government orders to turn back and the Illinois and Wisconsin area was soon rife with tales of Indian war. With resistance forming against him, it soon became apparent to Black Hawk that The Prophet's assurances of Indian and British support were mythical, and he prepared to turn back. So far no blood had been shed, but on May 14, 1832, Black Hawk's flag of truce was violated by a party of volunteers near Dixon, Ill.; the Indians returned the fire and the volunteers fled in panic. Reports of this affair led to an Indian scare that bordered on hysteria. Black Hawk, at first encouraged by this easy victory, took refuge in the Rock River swamps near Beloit. Several weeks later the Indian band, pursued by militia, volunteers, and regular army troops, began a flight northward through Wisconsin in a desperate attempt to recross the Mississippi. In this chase, which lasted for over Sauk two months, several skirmishes were fought, but eventually many of the Indians succeeded in at the Indian village of reaching the Mississippi near the mouth of the Bad Axe River. On Aug. 1, 1832, they attempted to cross the Mississippi but were driven back by the arrival of the steamboat, "Warrior." Although the Indians attempted to surrender, they were met with cannon and rifle fire. The following day the pursuing land forces arrived and the Indians were completely crushed, more than 300 being killed or drowned. Black Hawk managed to escape, but was captured later near Wisconsin Dells. After a brief imprisonment and a trip to the East to impress him with the strength of the government, Black Hawk was settled in Iowa. In 1833 he dictated his autobiography to an interpreter at Rock Island. Dict. Amer. Biog.; C. Cole, I Am a Man (Iowa City, 1938); W. T. Hagan, Black Hawk's Route through Wis. (Madison, 1949); Wis. Mag. Hist., 40; WPA MS.

View pictures relating to Sauk Indians at Wisconsin Historical Images.

View newspaper clippings at Wisconsin Local History and Biography Articles.

[Source: Dictionary of Wisconsin biography]

94 records found

Atkinson, Henry, 1782-1842
Bad Axe River, Crawford Co.
Bad Axe, Battle of
Battle of Bad Axe (Historic Marker Erected 1955)
Battle of Wisconsin Heights (Historic Marker Erect
Beloit [brief history]
Black Hawk 1767 - 1838
Black Hawk at Turtle Village (Historic Marker Erec
Black Hawk War (1832)
Black Hawk War (Historic Marker Erected 1968)
Black Hawk War Encampment "Burnt Village" (Histori
Black Hawk War Encampment (Historic Marker Erected
Black Hawk [origin of place name]
Black Hawk, Sauk Co.
Blackhawk Island, Jefferson Co.
Blue Mounds (geology)
Brigham Park (Historic Marker Erected 1955)
Brigham, Ebenezer 1789 - 1861
Bunyan, Paul
Caspar Partridge case, 1850-1855
Clark, Satterlee [Jr.?] 1816 - 1881
Clermont, Alexis 1808 - 1898
Crelie, Joseph 1773 - 1866
Davis, Jefferson (in Wisconsin)
Decorah family
Decorah Peak (Historic Marker Erected 1958)
Decorah, One-Eyed, 1772?-1864, Ho-Chunk chief
Dodge's Grove and Fort Union (Historic Marker Erec
Dodge, Henry 1782 - 1867
Dodgeville [brief history]
Drummond's Island
Dunn [origin of place name]
Dunn, Charles 1799 - 1872
Fennimore [origin of place name]
Forsyth, Thomas, 1771-1833.
Fort Atkinson [brief history]
Fort Atkinson [origin of place name]
Fort Atkinson, Jefferson Co.
Fort Blue Mounds
Fort Defiance (Historic Marker Erected 1995)
Fort Hamilton
Fort Koshkonong (Historic Marker Erected 1966)
Fox Wars (ca. 1710-1740)
Gratiot, Henry 1789 - 1836
Grignon, Charles Augustin, 1808 - 1862
Grignon, Pierre Sr. 1740 - 1795
Hamilton, William Stephen 1797 - 1850
Helena, Iowa Co.
Indian Lake Passage (Historic Marker Erected 1997)
Keokuk, Sauk chief, 1780?-1848.
Lincoln, Abraham (in Wisconsin)
Meeker, Moses 1790 - 1865
Military River Crossing (Historic Marker Erected 1
Monfort [origin of place name]
Neopope, Sauk warrior, dates unverified
Niedecker, Lorine (1903-1970)(Historic Marker Erec
Niedecker, Lorine, 1903-1970
Ocooch Mountains (Historic Marker Erected 1998)
Oshkosh, Menominee chief, 1795 - 1858
Paquette, Pierre 1799? - 1836
Parkinson, Daniel Morgan 1790 - 1868
Pecatonica River, Green Co. [origin of place name]
Pheasant Branch Encampment (Historic Marker Erecte
Pope-Roberts, Sondy 1950
Potosi [origin of place name]
Presidential Visits to Madison
Prophet, The (Winnebago)
Robson, Judith Biros
Rountree, John Hawkins 1805 - 1890
Route of Abraham Lincoln, 1832 and 1859 (Historic
Sauk and Fox Treaty of 1804 (St. Louis)
Saukenuk
Schooff, Dan 1971
Soldiers Grove Origins (Historic Marker Erected 19
Souligny, Menominee leader, 1785-1864
Spotted Arm (Broken Arm), Ho-Chunk chief
Stambaugh, Samuel C.
Storrs Lake, Milton (Historic Marker Erected 1976)
Street, Joseph Montfort 1780 - 1840
The Pursuit West (Historic Marker Erected 1998)
The Smoker, Ho-Chunk chief
The U.S. Military at Turtle Village (Historic Mark
Third Lake Passage (Historic Marker Erected 1998)
timeline of Wisconsin history, 1784-1835
Tragedy of War (Historic Marker Erected 1998)
Trail Discovery (Historic Marker Erected 1998)
Treaty of 1832 (Fort Armstrong)
Troop Encampment (Historic Marker Erected 1998)
Victory, Vernon Co.
Western Escape (Historic Marker Erected 1998)
White Crow, Ho-Chunk chief
Whittlesey, Charles 1808 - 1886
Winnebago Indians (Historic Marker Erected 1973)
Yankees in Wisconsin

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