A Ho-Chunk warrior cautiously acknowledges the U.S. in 1816.

Speech declaring allegiance to the United States


Natawpindawqua (also known as Charatchou, Tshayrotshoankaw or, in English, Smoker) was a young Ho-Chunk warrior when he made this speech in 1816. His father, Serachou, was chief of a village at Taycheedah, near Fond du Lac, who died shortly after fighting with the British, 1812-15. Natawpindawqua succeeded him about the time he made this speech, and later attended treaty councils at Prairie du Chien (1825) and Butte des Morts (1827 and 1828); his village in 1829 contained about 145 inhabitants. The speech begins on page 446 of a letter by Dr. William H. Hening given the title, "Arrival of American Troops at Green Bay, in 1816." The letter also includes a description of wild rice in the Green Bay region and how it was used by the local Indians.


Related Topics: Early Native Peoples
Explorers, Traders, and Settlers
The War of 1812
Wild Rice Harvesting
Creator: Natawpindawqua (The Smoker; Ho-Chunk chief)
Pub Data: In: Hening, Henry, "Arrival of American Troops at Green Bay, in 1816." Wisconsin Historical Collections 13: 444-449.
Citation: Natawpindawqua, Ho-chunk chief. "Speech [declaring allegiance with United States]." In Hening, Henry, "Arrival of American Troops at Green Bay, in 1816." Wisconsin Historical Collections 13: 444-449. Online facsimile at:  http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=27; Visited on: 11/27/2014
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