Treaty Councils, from Prairie du Chien to Madeline Island

During August 1825, thousands of Indians representing all the Wisconsin tribes gathered in Prairie du Chien. Territorial governors William Clark of Missouri and Lewis Cass of Michigan facilitated discussions that produced a general treaty of peace among all the tribes. Henry Schoolcraft left a long account of this seminal event in chapter 23 of his memoirs (see below), and painter J.O. Lewis captured the scene and dozens of Indian leaders in color (all included here).

Although it granted no land to the United States, the Prairie du Chien treaty of 1825 opened the door for talks with individual... more...

Original Documents and Other Primary Sources

Link to article: Gen. Joseph Street, Indian agent to the Ho-Chunk, Sauk and Fox.Gen. Joseph Street, Indian agent to the Ho-Chunk, Sauk and Fox.
Link to article: Essays and speeches by Brothertown and Stockbridge leaders.Essays and speeches by Brothertown and Stockbridge leaders.
Link to article: Menominee Vocabulary, 1893Menominee Vocabulary, 1893
Link to article: Indian Versions of Some Early Wisconsin EventsIndian Versions of Some Early Wisconsin Events
Link to article: Ojibwe Place Names in Wisconsin, ca. 1890Ojibwe Place Names in Wisconsin, ca. 1890
Link to article: John Shaw recalls Tomah, Black Hawk, Keokuk, and other Indian leaders.John Shaw recalls Tomah, Black Hawk, Keokuk, and other Indian leaders.
Link to article: Walking Cloud recounts episodes of the Black Hawk War.Walking Cloud recounts episodes of the Black Hawk War.
Link to article: The Oneidas claim land in New YorkThe Oneidas claim land in New York
Link to article: A participant tells how the Oneida, Stockbridge, and Brothertown came to Wisconsin in the 1820s.A participant tells how the Oneida, Stockbridge, and Brothertown came to Wisconsin in the 1820s.
Link to article: A trader relates his family history and personal adventures, 1745-1857.A trader relates his family history and personal adventures, 1745-1857.
Link to article: Ho-Chunk chief Spoon Decorah looks back over a long life.Ho-Chunk chief Spoon Decorah looks back over a long life.
Link to article: Speeches of Pontiac (1763) and Souligny (1848) against white incursions.Speeches of Pontiac (1763) and Souligny (1848) against white incursions.
Link to article: A memoir of Indian agent Joseph StreetA memoir of Indian agent Joseph Street
Link to article: Early History of the Brothertown IndiansEarly History of the Brothertown Indians
Link to artifacts: Ojibwe ceremonial pipe given to Gov. James Doty, 1844Ojibwe ceremonial pipe given to Gov. James Doty, 1844
Link to book: The Commissioner of Indian Affairs visits the Ojibwe in 1826.The Commissioner of Indian Affairs visits the Ojibwe in 1826.
Link to book: Caleb Atwater describes the 1829 talks at Prairie du ChienCaleb Atwater describes the 1829 talks at Prairie du Chien
Link to book: A guide to the Mohican language, 1789A guide to the Mohican language, 1789
Link to book: The language spoken by the Brothertown Indians when Europeans arrived in AmericaThe language spoken by the Brothertown Indians when Europeans arrived in America
Link to book: An Oneida prayer-book, 1816An Oneida prayer-book, 1816
Link to book: The language of the Brothertown Indians' ancestors, 1722The language of the Brothertown Indians' ancestors, 1722
Link to book: A missionary's speech in Oneida, 1815.A missionary's speech in Oneida, 1815.
Link to book: The first book printed in Wisconsin, an Ojibwe almanacThe first book printed in Wisconsin, an Ojibwe almanac
Link to book: A religious primer in Mohican, 1818A religious primer in Mohican, 1818
Link to book: A speech by Brothertown Indian leader Samsom Occom, 1771A speech by Brothertown Indian leader Samsom Occom, 1771
Link to book: Report on the Menominee at Termination, 1958Report on the Menominee at Termination, 1958
Link to book: A life of Jesus in Ottawa, 1837A life of Jesus in Ottawa, 1837
Link to book: A Ho-Chunk grammar textbook, 1945A Ho-Chunk grammar textbook, 1945
Link to book: Stockbridge and Munsee Testimony, 1892Stockbridge and Munsee Testimony, 1892
Link to book: A local historian chats about Prairie du Chien (vol. 2)A local historian chats about Prairie du Chien (vol. 2)
Link to book: A local historian chats about Prairie du Chien (vol. 1)A local historian chats about Prairie du Chien (vol. 1)
Link to book: An Oneida spelling book for children, 1820An Oneida spelling book for children, 1820
Link to book: Fr. Baraga's 1853 Ojibwe DictionaryFr. Baraga's 1853 Ojibwe Dictionary
Link to book: Memoirs of an Interpreter among the Ojibwe, 1840-1900Memoirs of an Interpreter among the Ojibwe, 1840-1900
Link to book: A Munsee language edition of Methodist hymns, 1874A Munsee language edition of Methodist hymns, 1874
Link to book: The Stockbridge-Munsee Constitution, 1857The Stockbridge-Munsee Constitution, 1857
Link to book: The history and traditions of the Chippewa ValleyThe history and traditions of the Chippewa Valley
Link to book: Menominee chiefs refuse to give up more land in 1832.Menominee chiefs refuse to give up more land in 1832.
Link to collections: The Killing of Chief Joe White (Gishkitawag), 1894The Killing of Chief Joe White (Gishkitawag), 1894
Link to images: Oneida Chief Daniel Bread in 1856Oneida Chief Daniel Bread in 1856
Link to images: Pictures of the Ojibwe in the 19th and 20th centuries.Pictures of the Ojibwe in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Link to images: Pictures of the Menominee in the 19th and 20th centuries.Pictures of the Menominee in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Link to images: Pictures of the Ho-Chunk in the 19th and 20th centuries.Pictures of the Ho-Chunk in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Link to images: Pictures of the Meskwaki (Fox) Indians in the 19th century.Pictures of the Meskwaki (Fox) Indians in the 19th century.
Link to images: Pictures of the Potawatomi from the 1820's to the 1920'sPictures of the Potawatomi from the 1820's to the 1920's
Link to images: Pictures of the Sauk Indians during the 1830'sPictures of the Sauk Indians during the 1830's
Link to images: Ojibwe leaders represent their credentials to Washington in a pictureOjibwe leaders represent their credentials to Washington in a picture
Link to images: Stockbridge Chief John W. Quinney in 1849Stockbridge Chief John W. Quinney in 1849
Link to images: Stockbridge Indian leader Austin E. Quinney, 1849Stockbridge Indian leader Austin E. Quinney, 1849
Link to images: Menominee Chief Oshkosh in 1858Menominee Chief Oshkosh in 1858
Link to images: Wisconsin Indian leaders as they attended treaty councils in the 1830's.Wisconsin Indian leaders as they attended treaty councils in the 1830's.
Link to manuscript: The U.S. government deceives the Ojibwe, 1850.The U.S. government deceives the Ojibwe, 1850.
Link to manuscript: Ojibwe chiefs protest broken treaties to officials in Washington in 1864.Ojibwe chiefs protest broken treaties to officials in Washington in 1864.
Link to manuscript: The new Indian agent describes tensions in the Lead Region in 1827.The new Indian agent describes tensions in the Lead Region in 1827.
Link to manuscript: Wisconsin soldiers who served in the Black Hawk War (1832)Wisconsin soldiers who served in the Black Hawk War (1832)
Link to manuscript: The Treaty of Prairie du Chien, 1825The Treaty of Prairie du Chien, 1825
Link to manuscript: Chief Oshkosh protests U.S. government treatment, ca. 1848Chief Oshkosh protests U.S. government treatment, ca. 1848
Link to manuscript: A French visitor describes the Menominee's 1838 annuity payment.A French visitor describes the Menominee's 1838 annuity payment.
Link to manuscript: The Menominee and Ho-Chunk negotiate with the New York Indians in 1821.The Menominee and Ho-Chunk negotiate with the New York Indians in 1821.
Link to manuscript: Wisconsin soldiers who served in the Winnebago War (1827)Wisconsin soldiers who served in the Winnebago War (1827)
Link to manuscript: Brief Potawatomi Language Vocabularies, 1920-1932.Brief Potawatomi Language Vocabularies, 1920-1932.
Link to manuscript: A Long Ho-Chunk Vocabulary, 1880A Long Ho-Chunk Vocabulary, 1880
Link to manuscript: Brief Ho-Chunk Language Vocabularies, 1830-1930Brief Ho-Chunk Language Vocabularies, 1830-1930
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