Indians in the 20th Century

In the United States, the federal government recognizes Indian tribes as independent and sovereign powers. Sovereignty is the right of a nation or group of people to be self-governing. Indians are United States citizens and also citizens of their tribes. Like other Americans, Indians are subject to federal laws, but they are not always subject to state laws because Indian reservations are held in trust by the federal government. A government-to-government relationship exists between each sovereign tribe and the U.S. government. Today, eleven federally recognized Indian tribes call Wisconsin home (the Brothertown tribe filed a petition for recognition in 1996... more...

Original Documents and Other Primary Sources

Link to article: A Menominee superintendent discusses changes on the reservation, 1935A Menominee superintendent discusses changes on the reservation, 1935
Link to article: Menominee Vocabulary, 1893Menominee Vocabulary, 1893
Link to article: "Indian News" from the Voice of the Winnebago, 1931-1949"Indian News" from the Voice of the Winnebago, 1931-1949
Link to article: The Oneidas claim land in New YorkThe Oneidas claim land in New York
Link to article: Menominee lands are threatened with allotment, 1925Menominee lands are threatened with allotment, 1925
Link to article: An examination of treaty rights in Northern Wisconsin, 1989-1990An examination of treaty rights in Northern Wisconsin, 1989-1990
Link to artifacts: Anti-spearfishing concrete walleye decoy
Anti-spearfishing concrete walleye decoy
Link to artifacts: Athletic shoes embellished with a traditional artformAthletic shoes embellished with a traditional artform
Link to book: Conditions in Wisconsin Indian communities in 1929Conditions in Wisconsin Indian communities in 1929
Link to book: Excerpts from a tribal cookbookExcerpts from a tribal cookbook
Link to book: The Human Rights Commission surveys Wisconsin Indians in 1966The Human Rights Commission surveys Wisconsin Indians in 1966
Link to book: A Ho-Chunk grammar textbook, 1945A Ho-Chunk grammar textbook, 1945
Link to book: Conditions on Wisconsin Indian reservations, 1909-1910Conditions on Wisconsin Indian reservations, 1909-1910
Link to book: An Indian commission examines treaty rights and racism, ca. 1989An Indian commission examines treaty rights and racism, ca. 1989
Link to book: A Tourist Brochure for Marinette Co., ca. 1923A Tourist Brochure for Marinette Co., ca. 1923
Link to book: Stockbridge and Munsee Testimony, 1892Stockbridge and Munsee Testimony, 1892
Link to book: A modern dictionary of the Menominee languageA modern dictionary of the Menominee language
Link to book: A survey of Milwaukee's Indian population, 1962A survey of Milwaukee's Indian population, 1962
Link to book: A Tourist Brochure for Shawano and the Menominee Indian Reservation, ca. 1925A Tourist Brochure for Shawano and the Menominee Indian Reservation, ca. 1925
Link to book: Report on the Menominee at Termination, 1958Report on the Menominee at Termination, 1958
Link to collections: The Killing of Chief Joe White (Gishkitawag), 1894The Killing of Chief Joe White (Gishkitawag), 1894
Link to images: Pictures of the Potawatomi from the 1820's to the 1920'sPictures of the Potawatomi from the 1820's to the 1920's
Link to images: Pictures of the Ho-Chunk in the 19th and 20th centuries.Pictures of the Ho-Chunk in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Link to images: Pictures of the Ojibwe in the 19th and 20th centuries.Pictures of the Ojibwe in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Link to images: Pictures of the Menominee in the 19th and 20th centuries.Pictures of the Menominee in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Link to manuscript: A Long Ho-Chunk Vocabulary, 1880A Long Ho-Chunk Vocabulary, 1880
Link to manuscript: Brief Ho-Chunk Language Vocabularies, 1830-1930Brief Ho-Chunk Language Vocabularies, 1830-1930
Link to manuscript: Suburban high school students try to interpret Menominee culture in 1936Suburban high school students try to interpret Menominee culture in 1936
Link to manuscript: Alfred Bridgman's English-Menominee word list from the 1870sAlfred Bridgman's English-Menominee word list from the 1870s
Link to manuscript: Frank Bridgman's Menominee vocabulary, 1878Frank Bridgman's Menominee vocabulary, 1878
Link to manuscript: Testimony taken at Hayward, Wisconsin, April 23 & 24, 1934Testimony taken at Hayward, Wisconsin, April 23 & 24, 1934
Link to manuscript: Brief Potawatomi Language Vocabularies, 1920-1932.Brief Potawatomi Language Vocabularies, 1920-1932.
Join Now.