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Lead Mining in Southwestern Wisconsin

Although southwestern Wisconsin is best known today for its rich farmlands, place names such as Mineral Point and New Diggings evoke an earlier time when local mines produced much of the nation's lead. In the early nineteenth century, Wisconsin lead mining was more promising and attractive to potential settlers than either the fur trade or farming. Its potentially quick rewards lured a steady stream of settlers up the Mississippi River and into Grant, Crawford, Iowa, and Lafayette counties in the early nineteenth century. By 1829, more than 4,000 miners worked in southwestern Wisconsin, producing 13 million pounds of lead a year.

Europeans had known of the presence of lead ore in the upper Mississippi since the seventeenth century, and for hundreds of years before that, the Ho-Chunk, Mesquaki (Fox), Sauk, and other Indian tribes had mined its easily accessible lead. French fur trader Nicolas Perrot began actively trading in lead mined by Indians in the 1680s. When the French withdrew from the area in 1760, Indians guarded the mines carefully, revealing their locations only to favored traders such as Julian Dubuque.

Settlement in the region remained slow until a series of treaties between 1804 and 1832 gradually ceded all Indian lands south of the Wisconsin River to the U.S. This coincided with a strong demand for lead, which was widely used in the manufacture of pewter, pipes, weights, paint, and of course, ammunition for the firearms of an expanding U.S. military.

Miners who moved to the area in the 1820s and 1830s wasted little time in constructing shelters. Some simply burrowed holes into hillsides, earning miners the nickname "badgers." The tools and techniques involved in lead mining in these early years were relatively simple and inexpensive, allowing lucky miners to strike it rich with little personal expense.

Many of the first miners came to Wisconsin from Missouri, which had experienced a similar lead boom a few years earlier. Communities sprang up quickly around the mines, as other industries and businesses were founded to serve the residents that mining attracted. In the 1830s, experienced miners began arriving from Cornwall in southwestern England. The Cornish settled primarily in Mineral Point and constructed small, limestone homes similar to those they had left in England.

Wisconsin lead mining peaked in the 1840s. Although our state's mines then yielded more than half the national output, demand for Wisconsin lead was beginning to decline. Miners had exhausted the supply of easily obtainable ore, which made mining more expensive and less appealing to investors hoping to make money quickly. In 1844, a third of the region's residents left for copper and iron mines elsewhere and the discovery of gold in California caused many others to head west in 1849.

For those who remained, mining often became a part-time supplement to farming. Some men began to mine for zinc, and for a few years in the late nineteenth century, Mineral Point had the largest zinc smelting facility in the world. With mining restricted to only the most profitable localities by 1850, more than 90 percent of the land was free for farming. By 1860, the former lead mining region of southwestern Wisconsin had become recognized as one of the best agricultural areas in the state.

[Sources: The History of Wisconsin vol.2 (Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin); Kasparek, Jon, Bobbie Malone and Erica Schock. Wisconsin History Highlights: Delving into the Past (Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society Press, 2004); Gara, Larry. A Short History of Wisconsin. (Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1962); Thwaites, Reuben Gold " Notes on Early Lead Mining in the Fever (or Galena) River Region" Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, vol. 13 (Madison, 1895)]


Original Documents and Other Primary Sources

Link to article: Recollections of Wisconsin slaves by pioneer settlers.  Recollections of Wisconsin slaves by pioneer settlers.
Link to article: Mining in the lead region, 1670-1829  Mining in the lead region, 1670-1829
Link to article: Life in the lead region, 1823-1824  Life in the lead region, 1823-1824
Link to article: Theodore Rodolf recounts his life in the lead region in the 1830s  Theodore Rodolf recounts his life in the lead region in the 1830s
Link to article: Ho-Chunk chief Spoon Decorah looks back over a long life.  Ho-Chunk chief Spoon Decorah looks back over a long life.
Link to article: The eccentric poet who became Wisconsin's second state geologist.  The eccentric poet who became Wisconsin's second state geologist.
Link to article: Recollections of a young mother in the Lead Region, 1826-1841  Recollections of a young mother in the Lead Region, 1826-1841
Link to article: A Shullsberg miner looks back on 50 years in the Lead Region  A Shullsberg miner looks back on 50 years in the Lead Region
Link to article: Why Wisconsin is called the Badger State  Why Wisconsin is called the Badger State
Link to article: A memoir of Indian agent Joseph Street  A memoir of Indian agent Joseph Street
Link to article: A look at the lives and work of "farmer-miners"  A look at the lives and work of "farmer-miners"
Link to book: Folklore and folktales collected by Charles E. Brown  Folklore and folktales collected by Charles E. Brown
Link to images: Prairie du Chien merchant and judge James H. Lockwood, 1856.  Prairie du Chien merchant and judge James H. Lockwood, 1856.
Link to images: Pictures of lead mines and mining, 1836-1950  Pictures of lead mines and mining, 1836-1950
Link to images: Wisconsin's first Territorial Governor, Henry Dodge  Wisconsin's first Territorial Governor, Henry Dodge
Link to images: Pictures and maps of sites in the Lead Region, 1833-1840.  Pictures and maps of sites in the Lead Region, 1833-1840.
Link to manuscript: The new Indian agent describes tensions in the Lead Region in 1827.  The new Indian agent describes tensions in the Lead Region in 1827.
Link to manuscript: Moses Strong describes mining near Mineral Point, 1847  Moses Strong describes mining near Mineral Point, 1847
Link to manuscript: A miner describes his experiences in the lead mines, 1855  A miner describes his experiences in the lead mines, 1855
Link to map: The lead region, as settlers swarmed onto Indian lands in the 1820s.  The lead region, as settlers swarmed onto Indian lands in the 1820s.
Link to places: Old Spring Tavern  Old Spring Tavern
Link to places: Miners build a little "Cornwall" in Mineral Point  Miners build a little "Cornwall" in Mineral Point
Link to places: A lead shot tower in Iowa County  A lead shot tower in Iowa County
Link to places: An Italian missionary who designs his own churches  An Italian missionary who designs his own churches

Primary Sources Available Elsewhere

Link to article: The first state geologist describes the state of lead mining in 1853  The first state geologist describes the state of lead mining in 1853
Link to article: The second annual report of the state geologist, 1855  The second annual report of the state geologist, 1855
Link to article: A visit to the mines in 1820, at the start of the lead mining heyday.  A visit to the mines in 1820, at the start of the lead mining heyday.
Link to book: Life in the Diggings by Henry Legler  Life in the Diggings by Henry Legler
Link to book: An 1823 interview with a Sauk warrior  An 1823 interview with a Sauk warrior
Link to book: A visit to Sauk miners in southwestern Wisconsin in 1766  A visit to Sauk miners in southwestern Wisconsin in 1766
Link to book: Maj. Zebulon Pike tries to interview Julien Dubuque in 1805  Maj. Zebulon Pike tries to interview Julien Dubuque in 1805
Link to images: A Hazel Green lead mine in operation, 1915  A Hazel Green lead mine in operation, 1915

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