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Arrival of the First Europeans

The first European to visit Wisconsin may have been interpreter Etienne Brule (ca. 1592-1632). In 1622 or 1623 he traveled around Lake Superior, but the account of his trip was only written down from hearsay after his death by Gabriel Sagard-Theodat. Unique information about Wisconsin also appears on Samuel de Champlain's map of New France published in 1632 -- two years before Jean Nicolet reached Wisconsin, and is presumed to have come to Champlain from Brule. We give both documents here so you can decide for yourself whether you think Brule was the first European to set eyes on our state.

Most scholars agree that another of Champlain's interpreters, Jean Nicolet (1598-1642), did in fact reach Wisconsin and that he landed at Red Banks, near Green Bay, in 1634 (though some argue that he landed on the Lake Superior shore). You can read the only contemporary French account of his trip in our American Journeys digital collection, linked below. We also give here the Ho-Chunk and Menominee sides of the story as they were preserved in their oral traditions.

Brule and Nicolet had both been sent west by Samuel de Champlain to see if a water route to the Pacific existed. They didn't find one, of course, but they did find a very rich source of furs, on which the French authorities could turn a handsome profit -- if the furs could be brought to Montreal and shipped back to France. Although they were eager to export furs, the French were prevented from doing so until the Iroquois attacks of the mid-seventeenth century had ceased.

Thus, more than twenty years elapsed after Nicolet's landing in 1634 before the first traders finally appeared in Wisconsin. These were the Sieur de Groseilliers (1618-1684) and his teenage brother-in-law, Pierre Radisson (1636-1710), who spent 1654-1656 in Green Bay and 1659-1660 in the Chequamegon region on Lake Superior. On their second voyage, Radisson and Groseilliers built the first French fort in Wisconsin near Ashland though they nearly starved to death on the headwaters of the Chippewa River.

Radisson and Groseilliers brought back to Montreal not only furs but also news of a great river flowing south. This inspired the explorer René Robert Cavelier La Salle to send teenage interpreter Louis Joliet and Jesuit Father Jacques Marquette to investigate. News of Marquette and Joliet's famous 1673 trip to the Mississippi River inspired many other explorers, traders, and missionaries to come to Wisconsin in the seventeenth century, including LaSalle, Duluth, Tonti, and Hennepin.

[Sources: Wyman, Mark. The Wisconsin Frontier (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, c1998). Kellogg, Louise Phelps. The French Regime in Wisconsin and the Northwest (Madison : State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1925). The History of Wisconsin: volume 1, From Exploration to Statehood by Alice E. Smith. (Madison, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1973)]


Original Documents and Other Primary Sources

Link to article: Father Marquette's diary of his 1673 trip with Joliet  Father Marquette's diary of his 1673 trip with Joliet
Link to article: The Ho-Chunk recall meeting Europeans for the first time.  The Ho-Chunk recall meeting Europeans for the first time.
Link to article: Mining in the lead region, 1670-1829  Mining in the lead region, 1670-1829
Link to article: The Menominee recall meeting Europeans for the first time.  The Menominee recall meeting Europeans for the first time.
Link to book: A priest journeys to a Wisconsin village of exiled Hurons in 1661.  A priest journeys to a Wisconsin village of exiled Hurons in 1661.
Link to book: A young interpreter skirts the shores of Lake Superior about 1622.  A young interpreter skirts the shores of Lake Superior about 1622.
Link to book: Marquette and Joliet's 1673 voyage is leaked to the world.  Marquette and Joliet's 1673 voyage is leaked to the world.
Link to book: A primer of the Mohawk language, 1777  A primer of the Mohawk language, 1777
Link to book: Two traders nearly starve in the northwoods during the winter of 1659-60.  Two traders nearly starve in the northwoods during the winter of 1659-60.
Link to book: Report on the Menominee at Termination, 1958  Report on the Menominee at Termination, 1958
Link to book: An 1875 history of the Chippewa Valley  An 1875 history of the Chippewa Valley
Link to book: The history and traditions of the Chippewa Valley  The history and traditions of the Chippewa Valley
Link to images: Nicolet's 1634 landfall in Wisconsin (1904)  Nicolet's 1634 landfall in Wisconsin (1904)
Link to manuscript: Joliet is interviewed on his trip down the Mississippi in 1673.  Joliet is interviewed on his trip down the Mississippi in 1673.
Link to map: The Wisconsin portion of Champlain's 1632 map.  The Wisconsin portion of Champlain's 1632 map.
Link to map: The first map of the entire Mississippi River, published in 1681.  The first map of the entire Mississippi River, published in 1681.
Link to map: Fr. Marquette's hand-drawn map of his 1673 journey with Louis Joliet.  Fr. Marquette's hand-drawn map of his 1673 journey with Louis Joliet.
Link to places: Madeline Island Historical Museum  Madeline Island Historical Museum

Primary Sources Available Elsewhere

Link to article: Father Jean Claude Allouez in the Fox Valley, 1669-1670.  Father Jean Claude Allouez in the Fox Valley, 1669-1670.
Link to article: An early French overview of Wisconsin  An early French overview of Wisconsin
Link to article: Fr. Jean St. Cosme describes Wisconsin at the turn of the 18th century.  Fr. Jean St. Cosme describes Wisconsin at the turn of the 18th century.
Link to article: The explorer Duluth describes the Upper Mississippi about 1680.  The explorer Duluth describes the Upper Mississippi about 1680.
Link to article: LaSalle's chief lieutenant recounts his adventures, 1678-1690  LaSalle's chief lieutenant recounts his adventures, 1678-1690
Link to article: Father Jean Claude Allouez on Lake Superior, 1665-1667  Father Jean Claude Allouez on Lake Superior, 1665-1667
Link to article: The first French fur traders reach Wisconsin about 1654.  The first French fur traders reach Wisconsin about 1654.
Link to article: Jean Nicolet steps ashore at Green Bay in 1634.  Jean Nicolet steps ashore at Green Bay in 1634.
Link to book: Fr. Louis Hennepin describes Wisconsin and Minnesota in the 1670's.  Fr. Louis Hennepin describes Wisconsin and Minnesota in the 1670's.
Link to book: Memoirs of Nicolas Perrot in Wisconsin, 1665-1670.  Memoirs of Nicolas Perrot in Wisconsin, 1665-1670.
Link to book: The death of Father Rene Menard.  The death of Father Rene Menard.
Link to book: An electronic text of the complete Jesuit Relations, at Creighton University.  An electronic text of the complete Jesuit Relations, at Creighton University.
Link to book: Selected volumes of the Wisconsin Historical Collections series.  Selected volumes of the Wisconsin Historical Collections series.
Link to book: A historical, documentary, and descriptive history of Wisconsin to 1854  A historical, documentary, and descriptive history of Wisconsin to 1854
Link to map: Joliet's manuscript map of North America, 1674  Joliet's manuscript map of North America, 1674

Related Links

Visit our archaeology Web pages
Visit the Web site of the Menominee Indian Tribe
Visit the Web site of the Ho-chunk Nation
Discover the standard book about Wisconsin Indians, by Patty Loew
Discover classroom resources available from our Office of School Services
Visit Heritage Hill State Historical Park
Search our catalogs for materials on this topic that aren't yet available online.
Borrow books about this topic through our interlibrary loan service
Borrow manuscripts about this topic through our Area Research Center network.
Learn about other topics from our new book, Wisconsin History Highlights

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