Wisconsin Historical Society

National or State Registers Record

150 yards off Atwater Beach

National or State Register of Historic Places
150 yards off Atwater Beach | National or State Registers Record | Wisconsin Historical Society
NAMES
Historic Name:Appomattox Shipwreck
Reference Number:04001547
PROPERTY LOCATION
Location (Address):150 yards off Atwater Beach
County:Milwaukee
City/Village:Shorewood
Township:
SUMMARY
Appomattox Shipwreck
Off Atwater Beach, Shorewood, Milwaukee County
Builder: James Davidson
Date of construction: 1896

The Appomattox, the largest wooden steam bulk freighter ever to ply the Great Lakes, embodies an important period in the economic and maritime history of the Midwest. Her period of operation (1896-1905) overlapped with profound changes in the technology, organization, and scale of industrial activity in the Great Lake region. An increasing anomaly during her career, this wooden steamer competed successfully with larger modern steel ships. The vessel is the product of master shipbuilder and successful maritime entrepreneur, Captain James Davidson, of Bay City, Michigan. At 319 feet in length, the Appomattox is, in terms of sheer size, Davidson's most ambitious steam bulk freighter and one of the last he built. Constructed in 1896, the Appomattox carried industrial commodities, predominately iron ore and coal, back and forth across the Great Lakes between 1896 and 1905.

On November 2, 1905, the vessel ran aground near Atwater beach in Milwaukee. Declared a total loss, the vessel's cargo and some of its machinery were salvaged. Today, the bottom and sides of the vessel retain excellent integrity, with long areas of the bilge fully intact. Resting in approximately 15 to 20 feet of water, and flattened by nearly a century of wind, waves, and ice, the Appomattox's steel-strapped wooden hull is well-preserved, revealing a host of engineering details not visible on more intact wrecks.

James Davidson constantly refined the art of large wooden ship construction and built several of the largest wooden bulk freighters in the history of the Great Lakes, indeed some of the longest ever built in the world. The remains of Appomattox offer archaeologists and historians of technology an opportunity to explore the engineering methods of a master shipbuilder, whose career successfully straddled the transformation from wood to steel shipping on the Great Lakes.

State and federal laws protect this shipwreck. Divers may not remove artifacts or structure when visiting this shipwreck site. Removing, defacing, displacing or destroying artifacts or sites is a crime. More information on Wisconsin's historic shipwrecks may be found by visiting www.wisconsinshipwrecks.org.

PROPERTY FEATURES
Period of Significance:1896-1905
Area of Significance:Archeology/Historic - Non-Aboriginal
Area of Significance:Architecture
Area of Significance:Maritime History
Applicable Criteria:Architecture/Engineering
Applicable Criteria:Information Potential
Historic Use:Transportation: Water-Related
Architectural Style:No Style Listed
Resource Type:Site
Architect:Davidson, James
DESIGNATIONS
Historic Status:Listed in the National Register
Historic Status:Listed in the State Register
National Register Listing Date:01/20/2005
State Register Listing Date:11/15/2004
NUMBER OF RESOURCES WITHIN PROPERTY
Number of Contributing Buildings:0
Number of Contributing Sites:1
Number of Contributing Structures:0
Number of Contributing Objects:0
Number of Non-Contributing Sites:1
Number of Non-Contributing Structures:0
Number of Non-Contributing Objects:0
RECORD LOCATION
National Register and State Register of Historic Places, Division of Historic Preservation, Wisconsin Historical Society, Madison, Wisconsin

How to Cite

For the purposes of a bibliography entry or footnote, follow this model:

National Register of Historic Places Citation
National Register of Historic Places, "Historic Name", "Town", "County", "State", "Reference Number".

Have Questions?

If you didn't find the National Register listing you were looking for or have other questions about the National Register, please email us and we can help: