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Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin | Wisconsin Historical Society

Historical Essay

Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin

A Brief Introduction

Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin | Wisconsin Historical Society
EnlargeRibes eradication crew of Indian women on the Menominee Reservation pose together.

Menominee Women's Crew

Ribes eradication crew of Indian women on the Menominee Reservation pose together. The ribes plants need to be cleared to prevent the white pines from contracting blister rust. During World War I many Menominee enlisted in the army, leaving women to manage the tribe's mill and protect its forest lands. View the original source document: WHI 35126

The Menominee nation has always lived in Wisconsin, especially the forested northeast around Green Bay. The Menominee people were often called "Folle Avoine" (wild rice) Indians in early French documents from their reliance on that local food. The Menominee ceded much land in 19th century treaties, but were able to successfully resist removal to the West and retain 276,000 forested acres. The Menominee also avoided the General Allotment Act of 1887 due to their self-sustaining forestry practices, but were deeply affected by forced removal of children to boarding schools starting in 1896, mismanagement of resources by the Forest Service in the first part of the 20th century, and devastating termination in 1954. After many years of activism, the tribe won back official status as a tribe with the 1973 Menominee Restoration Bill.

The Menominee reservation of about 235,523 acres is in Keshena, WI. The healthy and diverse Menominee Forest has sustained the Menominee people for hundreds of years, and is now considered a laboratory for sustainable forestry. The College of Menominee Nation, a Land Grant institution, began classes in 1993 and now offers Bachelor's degrees, Associate degrees, and technical diplomas. Visit the links below for information about Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin including their history, culture and present day community.

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Other outdated names for the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin: Mantouechs, Perote, Folle Avoines, Fol Avoine, Folle Avoine, Noquias, Noquets, Oumalouminek, Malhominis, Malhonmines, Maroumine and Fullsavoines.

Source: Loew, Patty. Indian Nations of Wisconsin (Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society Press, 2001).