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Indians in the 20th Century

In the United States, the federal government recognizes Indian tribes as independent and sovereign powers. Sovereignty is the right of a nation or group of people to be self-governing. Indians are United States citizens and also citizens of their tribes. Like other Americans, Indians are subject to federal laws, but they are not always subject to state laws because Indian reservations are held in trust by the federal government. A government-to-government relationship exists between each sovereign tribe and the U.S. government. Today, eleven federally recognized Indian tribes call Wisconsin home (the Brothertown tribe filed a petition for recognition in 1996... more...

Original Documents and Other Primary Sources

Link to article: A Menominee superintendent discusses changes on the reservation, 1935  A Menominee superintendent discusses changes on the reservation, 1935
Link to article: Menominee Vocabulary, 1893  Menominee Vocabulary, 1893
Link to article: "Indian News" from the Voice of the Winnebago, 1931-1949  "Indian News" from the Voice of the Winnebago, 1931-1949
Link to article: The Oneidas claim land in New York  The Oneidas claim land in New York
Link to article: Menominee lands are threatened with allotment, 1925  Menominee lands are threatened with allotment, 1925
Link to article: An examination of treaty rights in Northern Wisconsin, 1989-1990  An examination of treaty rights in Northern Wisconsin, 1989-1990
Link to artifacts: Anti-spearfishing concrete walleye decoy
  Anti-spearfishing concrete walleye decoy
Link to artifacts: Athletic shoes embellished with a traditional artform  Athletic shoes embellished with a traditional artform
Link to book: Conditions in Wisconsin Indian communities in 1929  Conditions in Wisconsin Indian communities in 1929
Link to book: Excerpts from a tribal cookbook  Excerpts from a tribal cookbook
Link to book: The Human Rights Commission surveys Wisconsin Indians in 1966  The Human Rights Commission surveys Wisconsin Indians in 1966
Link to book: A Ho-Chunk grammar textbook, 1945  A Ho-Chunk grammar textbook, 1945
Link to book: Conditions on Wisconsin Indian reservations, 1909-1910  Conditions on Wisconsin Indian reservations, 1909-1910
Link to book: An Indian commission examines treaty rights and racism, ca. 1989  An Indian commission examines treaty rights and racism, ca. 1989
Link to book: A Tourist Brochure for Marinette Co., ca. 1923  A Tourist Brochure for Marinette Co., ca. 1923
Link to book: Stockbridge and Munsee Testimony, 1892  Stockbridge and Munsee Testimony, 1892
Link to book: A modern dictionary of the Menominee language  A modern dictionary of the Menominee language
Link to book: A survey of Milwaukee's Indian population, 1962  A survey of Milwaukee's Indian population, 1962
Link to book: A Tourist Brochure for Shawano and the Menominee Indian Reservation, ca. 1925  A Tourist Brochure for Shawano and the Menominee Indian Reservation, ca. 1925
Link to book: Report on the Menominee at Termination, 1958  Report on the Menominee at Termination, 1958
Link to collections: The Killing of Chief Joe White (Gishkitawag), 1894  The Killing of Chief Joe White (Gishkitawag), 1894
Link to images: Pictures of the Potawatomi from the 1820's to the 1920's  Pictures of the Potawatomi from the 1820's to the 1920's
Link to images: Pictures of the Ho-Chunk in the 19th and 20th centuries.  Pictures of the Ho-Chunk in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Link to images: Pictures of the Ojibwe in the 19th and 20th centuries.  Pictures of the Ojibwe in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Link to images: Pictures of the Menominee in the 19th and 20th centuries.  Pictures of the Menominee in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Link to manuscript: A Long Ho-Chunk Vocabulary, 1880  A Long Ho-Chunk Vocabulary, 1880
Link to manuscript: Brief Ho-Chunk Language Vocabularies, 1830-1930  Brief Ho-Chunk Language Vocabularies, 1830-1930
Link to manuscript: Suburban high school students try to interpret Menominee culture in 1936  Suburban high school students try to interpret Menominee culture in 1936
Link to manuscript: Alfred Bridgman's English-Menominee word list from the 1870s  Alfred Bridgman's English-Menominee word list from the 1870s
Link to manuscript: Frank Bridgman's Menominee vocabulary, 1878  Frank Bridgman's Menominee vocabulary, 1878
Link to manuscript: Testimony taken at Hayward, Wisconsin, April 23 & 24, 1934  Testimony taken at Hayward, Wisconsin, April 23 & 24, 1934
Link to manuscript: Brief Potawatomi Language Vocabularies, 1920-1932.  Brief Potawatomi Language Vocabularies, 1920-1932.

Primary Sources Available Elsewhere

Link to article: Stockbridge-Munsee Constitution and By-laws  Stockbridge-Munsee Constitution and By-laws
Link to article: The Ho-Chunk Constitution  The Ho-Chunk Constitution
Link to article: The Constitution of the Forest County Potawatomi  The Constitution of the Forest County Potawatomi
Link to book: Wisconsin Blue Books  Wisconsin Blue Books
Link to book: A Scholarly Overview of Ojibwe Treaty Rights  A Scholarly Overview of Ojibwe Treaty Rights
Link to book: The Meriam Report (1928) investigates failed U.S. Indian policy  The Meriam Report (1928) investigates failed U.S. Indian policy
Link to map: Map of Native American areas based on 2000 Census  Map of Native American areas based on 2000 Census

Related Links

Visit the Web site of the Menominee Indian Tribe
Visit the Web site of the Ho-chunk Nation
Visit the Web site of the Oneida Nation of Wisconsin.
Visit the Web site of the Stockbridge-Munsee Community.
Visit the Web site of the Brothertown Indian Nation.
Discover the standard book about Wisconsin Indians, by Patty Loew
Discover classroom resources available from our Office of School Services
Search our catalogs for materials on this topic that aren't yet available online.
Borrow books about this topic through our interlibrary loan service
Borrow manuscripts about this topic through our Area Research Center network.
Learn about other topics from our new book, Wisconsin History Highlights
Read more about Wisconsin Indians from the Milwaukee Public Museum
Arrange a tour on this topic at our Museum
Learn more about Indian allotment from the Indian Land Tenure Foundation

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